Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), especially hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile infection (HA-CDI), continues to be a public health problem and has aroused great concern worldwide for years. Microbiome data distinguish patients with Clostridium difficile infection and non-C. difficile-associated diarrhea from healthy controls. (2014). Samples were rarefied to 17,520 reads per sample for beta-diversity analysis to reduce the bias due to different sequencing depths (only sample MS1498 was excluded from beta-diversity analysis). Figure 2. NMQ received a Ph.D. fellowship from the Spanish National Institute for Agriculture and Food Research and Technology (INIA, Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad; fellowship FPI2014-020). Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is currently one of the most important causes of infectious diarrhea in developed countries and the main cause in healthcare settings. Methods 7, 335–336. Diversity and evolution in the genome of Clostridium difficile. Dis. 35, 1047–1057. Gigascience 2:16. doi: 10.1186/2047-217X-2-16, Wickham, H. (2007). |,,, Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). A positive correlation was observed between the Akkermansia and Clostridioides genera (C. difficile). 56, 1108–1116. Infect. Clostridium difficile toxins A and B: insights into pathogenic properties and extraintestinal effects. (2018). Wellington: Ministry of Health and Ministry for Primary Industries. When data are not available that will withstand object … ABECEDAIRE CITATIONS PAR AUTEURS A comme … AMAR, M. « Le sport apporte aux jeunes de saines occupations. A., and Holmes, S. P. (2016). Pathogenic role of the gut microbiota in gastrointestinal diseases. All-cause and disease-specific mortality in hospitalized patients with Clostridium difficile infection: a multicenter cohort study. 21:30294. doi: 10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2016.21.29.30294, Davies, K. A., Longshaw, C. M., Davis, G. L., Bouza, E., Barbut, F., Barna, Z., et al. 25:789. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2016.00789, Schubert, A. M., Rogers, M. A. M., Ring, C., Mogle, J., Petrosino, J. P., Young, V. B., et al. This finding has been previously reported, but to a significantly lower extent: i.e., 6.5% (Staley et al., 2018). 11 Reported C. difficile colonisation rates vary, and may be as high as 50% in neonates and 70% in infants <1 year of age. Softw. Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) rates in the United States have tripled from 2000 to 2005, and disease morbidity and mortality have increased, particularly among elderly persons. Clostridium difficile, a Gram-positive, spore-forming anaerobic bacillus, was first described in 1935, 1 but it was not associated with antibiotic-related diarrhea until the late 1970s. doi: 10.1159/000477205, McDonald, D., Price, M. N., Goodrich, J., Nawrocki, E. P., DeSantis, T. Z., Probst, A., et al. (2018) also reported similar figures; Enterobacteriaceae was the most abundant bacterial family and the abundance of Lachnospiraceae was also very low. It is estimated that nearly 500,000 illnesses and 15,000 deaths are caused by CDI every year in the United States1, whereas the annual incidence in the EU was estimated to be 123,997 cases in 2011–20122, with mortality rates of 3–30% (Hensgens et al., 2013). In our study, Enterobacteriaceae was the most abundant family in cluster A (22.66% overall, but ranged from 0% in sample MS1495 to 79.13% in sample MS1508), whereas the relative abundance of Lachnospiraceae was significantly lower (4.96% overall). Wickham, H. (2016). Prevotellaceae is a family that can enzymatically disrupt mucosal barrier function and tends to be more abundant in intestinal biopsy samples isolated from patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (Nagao-Kitamoto et al., 2016). Infect. Evol. infections . A phylogenetic tree was built using alignment (Katoh and Standley, 2013) and phylogeny (Price et al., 2010) plugins. Infect. The previous history of antibiotherapy is also highly relevant; the trigger may be dysbiosis caused by prior antibiotic treatment, even in cases in which the gastrointestinal process is caused by C. difficile and there is robust evidence for CDI. Many of these infections could have been prevented . Chasing the rate: An interrupted time series analysis of interventions targeting reported hospital onset Clostridioides difficile, 2013–2018 - Michelle E. Doll, Jinlei Zhao, Le Kang, Barry Rittmann, Michael Alvarez, Michele Fleming, Kaila Cooper, Michael P. Stevens, Gonzalo Bearman The number of previous hospital admissions was higher for patients receiving healthcare in hospital than those receiving community care (Figure 1B). doi: 10.1128/CMR.00127-14, Lagier, J.-C. (2016). The role of Clostridium difficile in the paediatric and neonatal gut — a narrative review. MH and JE drafted the manuscript. While we tried to establish a correlation between gut redox modification and the microbial alterations observed, it remains unclear, although our findings could suggest that modifications of the redox potential might be a key parameter shaping the gut microbiota to be elucidated in future studies. Fecal microbiota transplantation for primary Clostridium difficile infection. Microbiol., 14 January 2019 Similarly, a member of the Tannerellaceae family, Parabacteroides distasonis, has been reported to be the most abundant in certain gastrointestinal disorders, such as Crohn’s disease (Lopetuso et al., 2018). In addition, an elevated abundance of Akkermansia may be a predictive marker for the presence of a CDI. Antibiotherapy generally consisted of metronidazole and then vancomycin if the diarrhea persisted. A pH and redox meter (GLP21 and Hach 5262PCE-228-R) was used to measure the pH and the redox potential according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Nat. Eur. The burden of CDI has increased mainly in the United States and Europe. 27 Abundance of taxa within the order Clostridiales. Vidéos liées à citation situation difficile . Staley et al. At least 14,000 people die each year in the United States from . 29K likes. ASV assigned to the family Peptostreptococcaceae were extracted from the feature table and used to construct a heatmap using JColorGrid (Joachimiak et al., 2006). Remarkably, although 125 ribotypes have being found in Europe, the hyper-virulent ribotype 027 is the most prevalent (19%) (Davies et al., 2016). (2016). 41:e1. This was true, for example, for samples MS1496 and MS1746, which came from the same patient diagnosed twice, 2 months apart. Upon hospital admission, all inpatients were administrated antibiotics after the positive diagnosis of C. difficile. However, several other aspects must be considered in the association of the microbiota to CDI and other gastrointestinal processes. Sangster et al. Euro Surveill. However, fecal microbiota transplantation appears to be a promising treatment for recurrent CDI (Shankar et al., 2014; Juul et al., 2018). (2016) also reported an increase in the abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila in CDI patients, potentially linked to the capacity of Akkermansia to degrade mucin, which may provide a selective advantage in CDI. *Correspondence: Jose María Eiros,, Front. Citefast is a FREE APA, MLA and Chicago citation generator. A panel of experts was convened by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) to update the 2010 clinical practice guideline on Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in adults. This is a complete guide to APA (American Psychological Association) in-text and reference list citations. doi: 10.1038/nature09944, Bokulich, N. A., Kaehler, B. D., Rideout, J. R., Dillon, M., Bolyen, E., Knight, R., et al. Its rules and guidelines can be found in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. Sebaihia, M., Wren, B. W., Mullany, P., Fairweather, N. F., Minton, N., Stabler, R., et al. There were two clusters (A and B) that described 38.9% of the variability in the x-axis. How is Enfants En Situation Particulièrement Difficile (French) abbreviated? Species and genus level resolution analysis of gut microbiota in Clostridium difficile patients following fecal microbiota transplantation. An outbreak of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) at Höglandet Hospital Eksjö in southern Sweden in 2011 was mainly due to a multidrug‐resistant PCR ribotype 046 (30% of all samples). J. Clin. Demultiplexed paired-end fastq files were processed using QIIME2 pipeline version 2018.6 (Caporaso et al., 2010) and dada2 (Callahan et al., 2016) and feature-table (McDonald et al., 2012) plugins were used for quality filtering of the reads, merging of the paired ends, chimera removal, and assignation of amplicon sequence variants (ASV). CDI is defined by the presence of symptoms (usually diarrhea) and either a stool test positive for C. difficile toxins or detection of toxigenic C. difficile, or colonoscopic or histopathologic findings revealing pseudomembranous colitis. PubMed® comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. PDF | Women's access to land has been at the heart of the news for three decades. Lettres (1646-1696) de What does difficult mean? In addition, some C. difficile strains may also produce a binary toxin, called C. difficile transferase (CDT), with a potential role in the pathogenesis of the bacterium (Di Bella et al., 2016). Cell. Here, we characterized the gut microbiota from the feces of 57 patients with diarrhea from nosocomial and community-acquired CDI. It is evident that modification of the gut microbiota can play a relevant role in the development of CDI. Best. The characterization was based on phylogenetic typing ofE. Libraries were sequenced on a MiSeq platform at the University of Burgos, leading to 300-bp, paired-end reads. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0081330, Staley, C., Kaiser, T., Vaughn, B. P., Graiziger, C. T., Hamilton, M. J., Rehman, T. U., et al. The identification of microbial markers that can predict disease severity or chronicity could help in the treatment of patients. J. Articles, German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH (DSMZ), Germany, Ramón y Cajal Institute for Health Research, Spain. Thus, the involvement of the pathobiont Rikenellaceae as a triggering factor for the diarrhea cannot be ruled out, as the percentage of C. difficile was lower after 2 months. C. difficile was identified in almost all samples and was detected in all but five diarrheic samples included in Cluster B (11.90% of the samples in cluster B), in which other components of the family Peptostreptococcaceae were found (not in sample MS0223). Culture-based studies suggest that all healthy adults share most of the same gut bacterial species, whereas culture-independent sequencing studies have revealed vast microbial diversity (more than 1,000 species), that varies highly over time and among the population. 2.Conduct surveillance for HO-CDI for inpatient pediatric In conclusion, our findings show that a reduction in Bacteroides is a clear disadvantage for healthy gut microbiota and can result in a worse CDI prognosis, including severe diarrhea and a high incidence of recurrence. There was a high abundance of Rikenellaceae (13.65 and 15.05%), Bacteroidaceae was reduced to approximately 30%, and C. difficile was also identified in the two samples. Mieux vaudrait qu'elles aient eu celui de l'éviter. Two clusters A (full black) and B (dot lane) were observed. This work received financial support of the Gerencia Regional de Salud of Junta de Castilla y León (Spanish Regional Government) (Grant Number GRS 1780/A/18). This citation style was created by the American Psychological Association. Only patient MS1496 was finally successfully treated with fidaxomicin, because of multiple recurrences. Sample MS0147 came from a patient with Crohn’s disease and the most abundant genus was Escherichia–Shigella at 22.65%. (2014). Microbiome 6:90. doi: 10.1186/s40168-018-0470-z, Callahan, B. J., McMurdie, P. J., and Holmes, S. P. (2017). 21, 1–20. Microbiol. Bacterial and fungal microbiota changes distinguish C. difficile infection from other forms of diarrhea: results of a prospective inpatient study. (2010). However, given that C. difficile could be ruled out as the primary etiological agent for four patients, the percentage dropped to 20.75%. Nature 473, 174–180. The Citation Latitude aircraft flight deck, centered around Garmin G5000 avionics, is designed to provide pilots with the comfort and information they need for a reliable and efficient flight. All individuals had received antibiotic treatment prior to developing diarrhea and some had also received proton pump inhibitors, except patient MS0215, who came to the emergency room with severe diarrhea, without previous antibiotic treatment. difficile strains from reptiles in Brazil and to characterize the isolated strains. Copyright © 2019 Hernández, de Frutos, Rodríguez-Lázaro, López-Urrutia, Quijada and Eiros. Guidelines for clinical practice are intended to suggest preferable approaches to particular medical problems as established by interpretation and collation of scientifically valid research, derived from extensive review of published literature.